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Islam is one of many warrior kingdoms, who descended on the settled civilisations of Europe. They expanded their occupation at a prodigious rate for about a hundred years.
In common with such expansions, anyone found in its path was killed or enslaved. As is the way of such expansions, it ran out of puff and was absorbed, then was pushed back, in particular in Spain, for the next seven hundred years. The Muslim invaders came to Spain in a similar manner to the Normans coming into Britain. They came as ruler, displacing the previous rulers. Killing off the peasantry that worked the land was not the objective, nor was removing useful administrators.
Such people were reduced to a servile class. Little attempt was made to convert them to Islam, but merely to control or use them. Tolerance or intolerance was irrelevant. As Christian Spain pushed back, similar attitudes prevailed. In both cases, a great church may become a mosque, and later revert back to being a church.
But then there was a fundamental difference. Christianity was essentially a religion of peace, whereas Islam was, and remains, a religion of conquest. The crusades in Spain and Jerusalem were conceived of as righting a wrong just war , as recovering what had been stolen.
As the Reconquista progressed, petty rulers on both sides of the divide might enter into alliances with petty rulers on the other side. Sometimes, Islamic rulers might be paying tribute to a Christian ruler, and visa versa. As the Islamics spread, various civilisations lost lands and with them, palaces, churches, libraries and wise men. Thus Islam built up treasure and knowledge from several places and cultures - from India, from Greece and so on.